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Indian Cuisine

 

Indian Cuisine

Indian cuisine is distinguished by its sophisticated use of spices and herbs and the influence of the longstanding and widespread practice of vegetarianism in Indian society.

Food is an integral part of India's culture, with cuisines differing according to community, region, and state. Indian cuisine is characterized by a great variety of foods, spices, and cooking techniques. Furthermore, each religion, region, and caste has left its own influence on Indian food.

Many recipes first emerged when India was predominantly inhabited by Vedic Hindus. Later, Christians, British, Buddhists, Portuguese, most importantly Muslims from Turkish, Arabs, Mughals, and Persians settlers and others had their influence. Vegetarianism came to prominence during the rule of Ashoka, one of the greatest of Indian rulers who was a promoter of Buddhism. In India, food, culture, religion, and regional festivals are all closely related. Indian meat and fish cuisine is mostly influenced by the Muslim population. 

 

History
Around 7000 BCE, sesame, eggplant and humped cattle had been domesticated in the Indus Valley. By 3000 BCE, turmeric, cardamom, black pepper and mustard were harvested in India.

In Vedic times, a normal diet consisted of fruit, vegetables, grain, meat, fish, dairy products and honey.[citation needed] Over time, the priestly Brahmin caste embraced vegetarianism, which is facilitated by a cooperative climate where a variety of fruits and vegetables can easily be grown throughout the year.

According to the traditional Indian medical system Ayurveda, food is either satvic, rajasic or tamasic depending on its character and effect upon the body and the mind.

Over the centuries Indian cuisine has been influenced by traders such as the Arabs and Chinese, and invaders such as the Persians, Mongols, Turks, British and Portuguese. The tomato, chilli, and potato, which are staple components of today's Indian cuisine, are relatively recent additions. They came to India from America through Europe.

Islamic rule introduced rich gravies, pilafs and non-vegetarian fare such as kebabs, resulting in Mughlai cuisine (Mughal in origin), as well as such fruits as apricots, melons, peaches and plums. The Mughals were great patrons of cooking. Lavish dishes were prepared during the reigns of Jahangir and Shah Jahan. The Nizams of Hyderabad state meanwhile developed and perfected their own style of cooking with the most notable dish being the Biryani, often considered by many connoisseurs to be the finest of the main dishes in India. During this period the Portuguese introduced foods from the New World such as potatoes, tomatoes, squash and chilies.

In the last century, the Indian fast food industry has seen rapid growth.


Elements
 
A typical assortment of spices used in Indian cuisine.The staples of Indian cuisine are rice, atta (whole wheat flour), and at least five dozen varieties of pulses, the most important of which are chana (bengal gram), toor (pigeon pea or red gram), urad (black gram) and mung (green gram). Chana is used in different forms, may be whole or processed in a mill that removes the skin, eg dhuli moong or dhuli urad, and is sometimes mixed with rice and khichri (a food that is excellent for digestion and similar to the chick pea, but smaller and more flavorful). Pulses are used almost exclusively in the form of dal, except chana, which is often cooked whole for breakfast and is processed into flour (besan). Most Indian curries are fried in vegetable oil. In North India, groundnut oil is traditionally been most popular for frying, while in Eastern India, Mustard oil is more commonly used. In South India, coconut oil is common. In recent decades, sunflower oil and soybean oil have gained popularity all over India. Hydrogenated vegetable oil, known as Vanaspati ghee is also a popular cooking medium.

The most important spices in Indian cuisine are chilli pepper, black mustard seed (rai), cumin (jeera), turmeric, fenugreek, ginger, coriander and asafoetida (hing). Another very important spice is garam masala which is usually a powder of five or more dried spices, commonly comprised of cardamom, cinnamon and clove. Some leaves are commonly used like bay leaf, coriander leaf and mint leaf. The common use of curry leaves is typical of South Indian cuisine. In sweet dishes, cardamom, cinnamon, nutmeg, saffron and rose petal essence are used.


Varieties

North Indian
Main article: North Indian cuisine
North Indian cuisine is distinguished by the higher proportion-wise use of dairy products; milk, paneer (cottage cheese), ghee (clarified butter), and yoghurt are all common ingredients, compared to that of southern India, where milk products, though consumed in large quantities, are usually used unaltered. North Indian gravies are typically dairy-based and employ thickening agents such as cashew or poppy seed paste. Milk-based sweets are also very popular fare, being a particular specialty in Bengal and Orissa. Other common ingredients include chillies, saffron, and nuts.

North Indian cooking features the use of the tandoor, a large and cylindrical coal-fired oven, for baking breads such as naan and khakhra; main courses like tandoori chicken also cook in it. Fish and seafood are very popular in the coastal states of Orissa and West Bengal.

Another important feature on North Indian cuisine are flat breads. These come in many different forms such as naan, paratha, roti, puri, bhatoora, and kulcha.

The samosa is a typical North Indian snack. These days it is common to get it in other parts of India as well. The most common (and authentic) samosa is filled with boiled, fried, and mashed potato, although it is possible to find other fillings.

North Indian cuisine has some typical details that are interesting. There are popular things like Buknu, Gujhiya, chaat, daal ki kachauri, jalebi, imarti, several types of pickles (known as achar), murabba, sharbat, pana, aam papad, and Poha-Jalebi.

There are several popular sweets (mithai) like mallai ki gillori, khurchan (from Mathura), petha (from Agra), rewdi (from Lucknow), gajak (from Meerut), milk cake (from Alwar), falooda, khaja (from Aligarh), Ras Malai, Gulab Jamun, Laddu, Barfi, Halwa, Gul Qand, and Balusahi.

The countries known as Pakistan and Bangladesh were a part of North and East India prior to the partition of India. As a result, the cuisines in these countries are very similar to northern and eastern Indian cuisine.


South Indian
Main article: South Indian cuisine
 
Lunch from Karnataka served on a plantain leaf.South Indian cuisine is distinguished by a greater emphasis on rice as the staple grain, the liberal use of coconut and curry leaves particularly coconut oil, and the ubiquity of sambar and rasam (also called saaru) at meals.

South Indian cooking is even more vegetarian-friendly than north Indian cooking. The practice of naivedya, or ritual offerings, to Krishna at the Krishna Mutt temple in Udipi, Karnataka, has led to the Udipi style of vegetarian cooking. The variety of dishes which must be offered to Krishna forced the cooks of the temple to innovate. Traditional cooking in Udupi Ashtamatha is characterized by the use of local seasonal ingredients. Garam masala is generally avoided in South Indian cuisine.

The dosa, idli, vada, bonda, and bajji are typical South Indian snacks.


Western
 
Chicken Tikka MasalaBritain has a particularly strong tradition of Indian cuisine that originates from the British Raj. At this time there were a few Indian restaurants in the richer parts of London that catered to British officers returning from their duties in India.

In the 20th century there was a second phase in the development of Anglo-Indian cuisine, as families from countries such as Bangladesh migrated to London to look for work. Some of the earliest such restaurants were opened in Brick Lane in the East End of London, a place that is still famous for this type of cuisine.

In the 1960s, a number of inauthentic "Indian" foods were developed, including the widely popular "chicken tikka masala". This tendency has now been reversed, with subcontinental restaurants being more willing to serve authentic Indian, Bangladeshi and Pakistani food, and to show their regional variations. In the late twentieth century Birmingham was the centre of growth of Balti houses, serving a newly developed style of cooking in a large, wok-like, pan, with a name sometimes attributed to the territory of Baltistan, (however, the Hindi word for bucket is also Balti). Indian food is now integral to the British diet: indeed it has been argued that Indian food can be regarded as part of the core of the British cuisine.

After the Immigration Act of 1965, South Asian immigration to the United States increased, and with it the prevalence of Indian cuisine, especially in San Francisco, Los Angeles, Chicago, the New York City neighborhoods of Murray Hill, Jackson Heights and East 6th Street, and in Edison, NJ. In many Indian restaurants in the U.S., all-you-can-eat buffets with several standard dishes have become the norm.

Indian restaurants are common in the larger cities of Canada, particularly in Toronto and Vancouver where large numbers of Indian nationals have settled since 1970. A number of the more adventurous restaurants have transformed their offerings into so-called Indian "fusion" menus, combining fresh local ingredients with traditional Indian cooking techniques. Indian restaurants can also be found in many European and Australian cities, particularly Paris, London, and Istanbul.

Due to the large Indian community in South Africa, the cuisine of South Africa includes several Indian-origin dishes; some have evolved to become unique to South Africa, such as the bunny chow. Many others are modified with local spices.


Beverages
Tea (Hindi: chai) is a staple beverage throughout India; the finest varieties are grown in Darjeeling and Assam. It is generally prepared as masala chai, a boiled mixture of milk and spices. The less popular coffee is largely confined to South India. One of the finest varieties of Coffea arabica is grown around Mysore, Karnataka, and is marketed under the trade name "Mysore Nuggets". Other beverages include nimbu pani (lemonade), lassi, and coconut milk. India also has many indigenous alcoholic beverages, including palm wine, fenny, and Indian beer.


Etiquette
Main article: Etiquette of Indian Dining
Several customs are associated with the manner of food consumption. Traditionally, meals are eaten while seated either on the floor or on very low stools or cushions. Food is most often eaten without utensils, using instead the fingers of the right hand.